10 November 2016
I stumbled across this interesting quote while reading a recent blog post about taxes. It comes from the Tax Court Judge's opinion on a case he had decided:
Deductions and credits are a matter of legislative grace, and taxpayers must prove entitlement to the deductions and credits claimed.
I'm not altogether happy with the term legislative grace to describe tax deductions and credits. Congress writes deductions and credits into the code to encourage behaviors they have deemed beneficial. Congress wants us to buy houses, so they create a deduction for mortgage interest. Congress wants us to be educated, so they create tax credits for higher education. I'm not sure grace accurately describes that situation. But I digress...
The real point the judge is making is that taxpayers aren't entitled to claim a deduction or credit just because they exist. You have to qualify for them; and, if asked, you have to provide evidence that you qualified for the ones you have claimed. If you can't provide such eveidence, then your right to the deduction or credit does not exist.
A paper trail is almost always the best. Receipts, invoices, financial statements, proper bookkeeping, and journal (or log) entries make very compelling arguments in favor of your right to claim the deduction or credit. It may seem bothersome to keep track of and keep up with these things, but not nearly so bothersome as getting your tax deduction revoked by the IRS and getting a bigger tax bill (with penalties and interest).
How you retain and organize your document trail is up to you. The IRS does not dictate any specific record keeping system. (They have been known to accept notes written on a paper plate!) However, good record keeping can save you (and me) a lot of headaches at tax time. Accordion files are inexpensive and you can even get them with tabs to help you sort your documents. Get one and start saving your tax documents in it. If you're not sure whether or not to save a document, save it. It is much easier to throw away documents that aren't needed than it is to locate a copy of something you've thrown away.
If you're handy with technology you might consider going paperless. You can scan in your receipts and other documents and save them digitally. Just be sure to use a logical file naming method. DSC2016-0798.jpg isn't a very helpful file name to describe a hotel receipt. It would take quite a while to find that hotel receipt mixed in with a bunch of other files named DSC2016-XXXX.jpg. You should also maintain different file folders to sort your receipts by the tax category they fall under, and then keep those tax category folders within another folder for each tax year.
There are also computer programs and apps for smart phones that can help you store, organize and keep track of your tax documents. It doesn't really matter how you do it - it just matters that you do it.
So, keep good records. If you still don't know what that means, or how to do it, come see me. I will get you squared away.
Nerdy Tax History Stuff
It is sometimes possible to claim deductions without a paper trail. It's known as the Cohan Rule, named after the composer, playwright, and Broadway producer George M. Cohan. (That's a picture of his statue in Times Square.) Mr. Cohan had a lot of business-related expenses. As a Broadway big shot he traveled frequently and had to wine and dine lots of folks for business purposes. He claimed these as legitimate business expenses on his income tax return. He wasn't very good at keeping records, though. When the IRS asked to see proof of his business expenses he could not produce any. The IRS agreed that such expenses were legitimate in Mr. Cohan's business, but since he couldn't prove when or how much he had spent on travel and entertainment for clients the IRS revoked ALL of his unsubstantiated business deductions.
Mr. Cohan disagreed with the disallowance of all his business expenses for which he could not prove an exact amount, and took the IRS to court. The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals agreed with Mr. Cohan. Judge Learned Hand (possibly the best-named judge in US History) wrote in his opinion:
...there was basis for some allowance, and it was wrong to refuse any, even though it were the travelling expenses of a single trip. It is not fatal that the result will inevitably be speculative; many important decisions must be such...
Today the Cohan Rule can be applied as justification for deducting some business expenses for which there is no paper trail so long as the expenses are reasonable and credible. But if you find yourself trying to use the Cohan Rule to defend some of your deductions, you probably need a lawyer, not an Enrolled Agent. Keeping good records is so much cheaper!